Castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and neuroendocrine carcinoma of the prostate are invariably fatal diseases for which only palliative therapies exist. As part of a prostate tumor sequencing program, a patient tumor was analyzed using Illumina genome sequencing and a matched renal capsule tumor xenograft was generated. Both tumor and xenograft had a homozygous 9p21 deletion spanning the MTAP, CDKN2, and ARF genes. It is rare for this deletion to occur in primary prostate tumors, yet approximately 10% express decreased levels of methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) mRNA. Decreased MTAP expression is a prognosticator for poor outcome. Moreover, it seems that this deletion is more commoninCRPCthan in primary prostate cancer.Weshow for the first time that treatment with methylthioadenosine and high dose 6-thioguanine causes marked inhibition of a patient-derived neuroendocrine xenograft growth while protecting the host from 6-thioguanine toxicity. This therapeutic approach can be applied to other MTAP-deficient human cancers as deletion or hypermethylation of the MTAP gene occurs in a broad spectrum of tumors at high frequency. The combination of genome sequencing and patient-derived xenografts can identify candidate therapeutic agents and evaluate them for personalized oncology.