PURPOSE. To evaluate associations between conditions of maternal new-onset gestational hypertension (mHTN) and the features imparting risk of severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in preterm infants. METHODS. Hospital databases and charts of all preterm inborn infants at the University of North Carolina from 1996 to 2007 were retrospectively reviewed. The presence or absence of mHTN (e.g., pre-eclampsia) and infant factors (birthweight, gestational age, erythropoietin use, and zone and stage of ROP) were analyzed for independence of association. RESULTS. Of the 5143 infants, 323 had ROP and 76 had mothers with mHTN. Infants with ROP were more likely to have mothers with mHTN and to be younger and smaller at birth. At initial examination, more infants of mothers with mHTN had vascularization into the lower zones than did infants of mothers without mHTN (P < 0.001). However, at the examination in which the most severe ROP was present, there was no association between mHTN and ROP stage (P = 0.2342). Analysis of stage and zone together showed that infants born to mothers with mHTN were more likely to have ROP at initial examination, after adjustment for gestational age, but not for birth weight. The use of erythropoietin was not associated with ROP zone or stage, even after adjustment for maternal condition, infant birth weight, or gestational age. CONCLUSIONS. Although larger avascular areas or higher severity scores were associated with mHTN after adjustment for gestational age at initial examination, no associations were found between mHTN and ROP severity score at the examination when ROP was most severe. There were no associations between ROP severity and treatment with erythropoietin.