Traumatic cerebrovascular injuries are common in both military and civilian populations. Whether such injuries occur in the aftermath of blunt or penetrating trauma has major implications for characteristics, classification, diagnosis, and optimal management of these lesions. Advances in screening methods, including particularly the dramatic rise of high-quality CT angiography, have facilitated early detection of these lesions. Fortunately, these diagnostic advances have occurred alongside improvements in pharmacological treatment and endovascular intervention, which now play an important role alongside surgical intervention in reducing the likelihood of adverse clinical outcomes. While the management of victims of trauma remains challenging, improved understanding of and ability to appropriately manage traumatic cerebrovascular lesions promises to yield better clinical outcomes for these vulnerable patients.