Neuroprotection with non-feminizing estrogen analogues: An overlooked possible therapeutic strategy

James W. Simpkins, Timothy E. Richardson, Kun Don Yi, Evelyn Perez, Douglas F. Covey

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


This article is part of a Special Issue "Hormones & Neurotrauma".Although many of the effects of estrogens on the brain are mediated through estrogen receptors (ERs), there is evidence that neuroprotective activity of estrogens can be mediated by non-ER mechanisms. Herein, we review the substantial evidence that estrogens neuroprotection is in large part non-ER mediated and describe in vitro and in vivo studies that support this conclusion. Also, we described our drug discovery strategy for capitalizing on enhancement in neuroprotection while at the same time, reducing ER binding of a group of synthetic non-feminizing estrogens. Finally, we offer evidence that part of the neuroprotection of these non-feminizing estrogens is due to enhancement in redox potential of the synthesized compounds.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)278-283
Number of pages6
JournalHormones and Behavior
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2013


  • Estrogen receptors
  • Estrogens
  • Hormone therapy
  • Neuroprotection
  • Non-feminizing estrogens
  • Stroke


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