While a role has been well established for excitotoxic necrosis in the pathogenesis of traumatic or ischemic damage to the CNS, accumulating evidence now suggests that apoptosis may also be a prominent contributor. In this review we focus on the role of glutamate and attendant intracellular calcium influx in triggering or modifying excitotoxic necrosis and apoptosis, raising the possibility that calcium influx may affect these two death pathways in opposite directions. Incorporating consideration of both pathways will probably be needed to develop the most effective neuroprotective treatments for CNS injury.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)857-869
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of neurotrauma
Issue number10
StatePublished - 2000


  • Apoptosis
  • Excitotoxicity
  • Hypoxia
  • Ischemia
  • Neuroprotection
  • Stroke
  • Trauma


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