Neuromonitoring During ECMO Support in Children

Ryan J. Felling, Asavari Kamerkar, Matthew L. Friedman, Ahmed S. Said, Kerri L. LaRovere, Michael J. Bell, Melania M. Bembea

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is a potentially lifesaving intervention for children with severe cardiac or respiratory failure. It is used with increasing frequency and in increasingly more complex and severe diseases. Neurological injuries are important causes of morbidity and mortality in children treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and include ischemic stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, hypoxic-ischemic injury, and seizures. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology and pathophysiology of neurological injury in patients supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and we review the current state of knowledge for available modalities of monitoring neurological function in these children. These include structural imaging with computed tomography and ultrasound, cerebral blood flow monitoring with near-infrared spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler ultrasound, and physiological monitoring with electroencephalography and plasma biomarkers. We highlight areas of need and emerging advances that will improve our understanding of neurological injury related to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and help to reduce the burden of neurological sequelae in these children.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)701-713
Number of pages13
JournalNeurocritical Care
Issue number3
StatePublished - Dec 2023


  • Biomarkers
  • Electroencephalography
  • Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
  • Intracranial hemorrhage
  • Neuroimaging
  • Seizures
  • Stroke
  • Transcranial doppler


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