In randomized trials, therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is associated with reduced prevalence of the composite outcome mortality or neurodevelopmental morbidity in infants with neonatal encephalopathy (NE). Following systematic review, the reduction in prevalence of both mortality and infant neuromorbidity is clear. Among three trials reporting school age outcomes, the effects of NE and TH suggest that such benefit persists into middle childhood, but none of the major trials were powered to detect differences in these outcomes. Cognitive, educational and behavioural outcomes are all adversely affected by NE in children without moderate or severe neuromorbidity. High-quality longitudinal studies of neurocognitive and educational outcomes following NE in the era of TH, including studies incorporating multimodal neuroimaging assessments, are required to characterise deficits more precisely so that robust interventional targets may be developed, and resource planning can occur. Understanding the impact of NE on families and important educational, social, and behavioural outcomes in childhood is critical to attempts to optimise outcomes through interventions.