Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a historic pandemic of respiratory disease. COVID-19 also causes acute and post-acute neurological symptoms, which range from mild, such as headaches, to severe, including hemorrhages. Current evidence suggests that there is no widespread infection of the central nervous system (CNS) by SARS-CoV-2, thus what is causing COVID-19 neurological disease? Here, we review potential immunological mechanisms driving neurological disease in COVID-19 patients. We begin by discussing the implications of imbalanced peripheral immunity on CNS function. Next, we examine the evidence for dysregulation of the blood-brain barrier during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Last, we discuss the role myeloid cells may play in promoting COVID-19 neurological disease. Combined, we highlight the role of innate immunity in COVID-19 neuroinflammation and suggest areas for future research.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102608
JournalCurrent Opinion in Neurobiology
StatePublished - Oct 2022


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