Neurofibromatosis type 1 is a relatively common inherited disorder. Patients have a high predisposition to develop both benign and malignant tumours. Although many manifestations of neurofibromatosis type 1 affect the nervous system, other organs and tissues can also be affected. Because of the varying features and clinical heterogeneity inherent to this disorder, patients can present to different medical and surgical specialists and, therefore, the association of clinical symptoms with neurofibromatosis type 1 might not be appreciated. Thus, for prompt diagnosis and to provide optimum care for patients with neurofibromatosis type 1, clinicians must be aware of the diverse clinical features of this disorder. We advocate a multidisciplinary approach to care, entailing a dedicated team of specialists throughout the lifetime of the patient. As our understanding of this disorder deepens through basic laboratory and clinical investigations, swift implementation of new effective treatments becomes feasible.