Learning Objectives: After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Understand the pathophysiology of chronic nerve compression. 2. Describe the evaluation of a patient presenting with compression neuropathy. 3. Discuss the current controversies in the management of compression neuropathies. 4. Describe the treatment of common compression neuropathies, including carpal and cubital tunnel syndromes. Summary: Nerve entrapment syndromes are common in the general population, and are managed by a wide variety of medical and surgical specialists. A thorough understanding of the pathophysiology of nerve compression and appropriate clinical workup are critical in the overall management of these conditions. There remain several topics of controversy regarding the surgical management of nerve entrapment syndromes, including multiple points of nerve compression, carpal tunnel release under local anesthesia, open versus endoscopic decompression surgery, the "best" operation for primary cubital tunnel surgery, and revision decompression surgery. This article attempts to provide a concise summary of the advances in the basic and clinical science of peripheral nerve entrapment.