Objective: To examine profiles of distress of mothers of preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and relate profiles to maternal and child outcomes at child age 5 years. Method: A racially and economically diverse sample of mothers (n = 94; 39% African American, 52% White) of preterm infants (≤30 weeks of gestation) completed validated questionnaires assessing depression, anxiety (state and trait), NICU stress, and life stress at NICU discharge of their infant. Mothers reported on their own and their children's symptomatology at child age 5. A latent profile analysis was conducted to categorize maternal symptomatology. Results: Latent profile analysis yielded 4 distinct maternal profiles: low symptomatology, high NICU stress, high depression and anxiety, and high state anxiety. Social determinants of health factors including age, education, neighborhood deprivation, and infant clinical risk distinguished the profiles. Mothers in the high depression and anxiety profile reported more anxiety and life stress at follow-up and reported their children experienced more anxious/depressed symptoms. Conclusion: Existing literature has gaps related to examining multiple dimensions of NICU distress and understanding how patterns of mood/affective symptoms, life stressors, and related social determinants of health factors vary across mothers. In this study, one specific profile of maternal NICU distress demonstrated enduring risks for poorer maternal and child mental health outcomes. This new knowledge underscores sources of disparate health outcomes for mothers of preterm infants and the infants themselves. Universal screening is needed to identify at-risk dyads for poor health outcomes in need of individualized interventions that address both maternal and child well-being. Diversity & Inclusion Statement: We worked to ensure sex and gender balance in the recruitment of human participants. We worked to ensure race, ethnic, and/or other types of diversity in the recruitment of human participants. One or more of the authors of this paper self-identifies as a member of one or more historically underrepresented racial and/or ethnic groups in science. One or more of the authors of this paper self-identifies as a member of one or more historically underrepresented sexual and/or gender groups in science. We actively worked to promote inclusion of historically underrepresented racial and/or ethnic groups in science in our author group. While citing references scientifically relevant for this work, we also actively worked to promote sex and gender balance in our reference list. While citing references scientifically relevant for this work, we also actively worked to promote inclusion of historically underrepresented racial and/or ethnic groups in science in our reference list.
|Number of pages||11|
|Journal||Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry|
|State||Published - Oct 2023|