Neonatal development of intestinal neuroimmune interactions

Ellen Merrick Schill, Alexandria N. Floyd, Rodney D. Newberry

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Interactions between the enteric nervous system (ENS), immune system, and gut microbiota regulate intestinal homeostasis in adults, but their development and role(s) in early life are relatively underexplored. In early life, these interactions are dynamic, because the mucosal immune system, microbiota, and the ENS are developing and influencing each other. Moreover, disrupting gut microbiota and gut immune system development, and potentially ENS development, by early-life antibiotic exposure increases the risk of diseases affecting the gut. Here, we review the development of the ENS and immune/epithelial cells, and identify potential critical periods for their interactions and development. We also highlight knowledge gaps that, when addressed, may help promote intestinal homeostasis, including in the settings of early-life antibiotic exposure.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)928-941
Number of pages14
JournalTrends in Neurosciences
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2022


  • early-life antibiotics
  • enteric nervous system
  • goblet cells
  • innate lymphoid cells
  • muscularis macrophages
  • neonatal microbiome


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