Neoantigen vaccine platforms in clinical development: understanding the future of personalized immunotherapy

Suangson Supabphol, Lijin Li, S. Peter Goedegebuure, William E. Gillanders

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


Introduction: Derived from genetic alterations, cancer neoantigens are proteins with novel amino acid sequences that can be recognized by the immune system. Recent evidence demonstrates that cancer neoantigens represent important targets of cancer immunotherapy. The goal of cancer neoantigen vaccines is to induce neoantigen-specific immune responses and antitumor immunity, while minimizing the potential for autoimmune toxicity. Advances in sequencing technologies, neoantigen prediction ?algorithms,? and other technologies have dramatically improved the ability to identify and prioritize cancer neoantigens. These advances have generated considerable enthusiasm for ?the ?development of neoantigen vaccines. Several neoantigen vaccine platforms are currently being evaluated in early phase clinical trials including the synthetic long peptide (SLP), RNA, dendritic cell (DC), and DNA vaccine platforms. Areas covered: In this review, we describe, evaluate the mechanism(s) of action, compare the advantages and disadvantages, and summarize early clinical experience with each vaccine platform. We provide perspectives on the future directions of the neoantigen vaccine field. All data are derived from PubMed and ClinicalTrials search updated in October 2020. Expert opinion: Although the initial clinical experience is promising, significant challenges to the success of neoantigen vaccines include limitations in neoantigen identification and the need to successfully target the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)529-541
Number of pages13
JournalExpert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2021


  • Neoantigen
  • cancer vaccine
  • clinical trial
  • delivery platforms


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