In an ongoing, open-label, single-arm phase II study (NCT02927301), 181 patients with untreated, resectable, stage IB–IIIB non-small cell lung cancer received two doses of neoadjuvant atezolizumab monotherapy. The primary end point was major pathological response (MPR; ≤10% viable malignant cells) in resected tumors without EGFR or ALK alterations. Of the 143 patients in the primary end point analysis, the MPR was 20% (95% confidence interval, 14–28%). With a minimum duration of follow-up of 3 years, the 3-year survival rate of 80% was encouraging. The most common adverse events during the neoadjuvant phase were fatigue (39%, 71 of 181) and procedural pain (29%, 53 of 181), along with expected immune-related toxicities; there were no unexpected safety signals. In exploratory analyses, MPR was predicted using the pre-treatment peripheral blood immunophenotype based on 14 immune cell subsets. Immune cell subsets predictive of MPR in the peripheral blood were also identified in the tumor microenvironment and were associated with MPR. This study of neoadjuvant atezolizumab in a large cohort of patients with resectable non-small cell lung cancer was safe and met its primary end point of MPR ≥ 15%. Data from this single-arm, non-randomized trial suggest that profiles of innate immune cells in pre-treatment peripheral blood may predict pathological response after neoadjuvant atezolizumab, but additional studies are needed to determine whether these profiles can inform patient selection and new therapeutic approaches.