Nebulised hypertonic saline (3%) among children with mild to moderately severe bronchiolitis - a double blind randomized controlled trial

Aayush Khanal, Arun Sharma, Srijana Basnet, Pushpa Raj Sharma, Fakir Chandra Gami

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13 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: To Assess the efficacy of nebulised hypertonic saline (HS) (3%) among children with mild to moderately severe bronchiolitis. Methods: Infants aged 6weeks to 24months, with a first episode of wheezing and Clinical Severity scores (Arch Dis Child 67:289-93, 1992) between 1 and 8, were enrolled over 4months duration. Those with severe disease, co-morbidities, prior wheezing, recent bronchodilator and steroid use were excluded. Patients were randomized in a double-blind fashion, to receive two doses of nebulized 3% HS (Group 1) or 0.9% normal saline (Group 2) with 1.5mg of L-Epineprine, delivered 30min apart. Parents were contacted at 24h and 7days. The principal outcome measure was the mean change in clinical severity score at the end of 2h of observation. Results: A total of 100 infants (mean age 9.6months, range 2-23 months; 61% males) were enrolled. Patients in both groups had mild to moderately severe disease at presentation. On an intention-to-treat basis, the infants in the HS group had a significant reduction (3.57 ± 1.41) in the mean clinical severity score compared to those in the NS group (2.26 ± 1.15); [p < 0.001; CI: 0.78-1.82]. More children in the HS group (n = 35/50; 70.0%) were eligible for ER/OPD discharge at the end of 2h than those in the NS group (n = 15/50; 30%; p < 0.001), and less likely to need a hospital re-visit (n = 5/50; 10.0%) in the next 24h as compared to the NS group (n = 15/50, 30.0%; p < 0.001). The treatment was well tolerated, with no adverse effects. Conclusions: Nebulized 3% HS is effective, safe and superior to normal saline for outpatient management of infants with mild to moderately severe viral bronchiolitis in improving Clinical Severity Scores, facilitating early Out-Patient Department discharge and preventing hospital re-visits and admissions in the 24h of presentation. Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov NCTID012766821 . Registered on January 12, 2011.

Original languageEnglish
Article number115
JournalBMC Pediatrics
Volume15
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 10 2015

Keywords

  • Bronchiolitis
  • Clinical severity score
  • Epinephrine
  • Hypertonic saline

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