Na+ is shifted from the extracellular to the intracellular compartment and is not inactivated by glycosaminoglycans during high salt conditions in rats

Irene Matre Thowsen, Tine V. Karlsen, Elham Nikpey, Hanne Haslene-Hox, Trude Skogstrand, Gwendalyn J. Randolph, Bernd H. Zinselmeyer, Olav Tenstad, Helge Wiig

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Abstract

Abstract: Recently, studies have emerged suggesting that the skin plays a role as major Na+ reservoir via regulation of the content of glycosaminoglycans and osmotic gradients. We investigated whether there were electrolyte gradients in skin and where Na+ could be stored to be inactivated from a fluid balance viewpoint. Na+ accumulation was induced in rats by a high salt diet (HSD) (8% NaCl and 1% saline to drink) or by implantation of a deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) tablet (1% saline to drink) using rats on a low salt diet (LSD) (0.1% NaCl) on tap water as control. Na+ and K+ were assessed by ion chromatography in tissue eluates, and the extracellular volume by equilibration of 51Cr-EDTA. By tangential sectioning of the skin, we found a low Na+ content and extracellular volume in epidermis, both parameters rising by ∼30% and 100%, respectively, in LSD and even more in HSD and DOCA when entering dermis. We found evidence for an extracellular Na+ gradient from epidermis to dermis shown by an estimated concentration in epidermis ∼2 and 4–5 times that of dermis in HSD and DOCA-salt. There was intracellular storage of Na+ in skin, muscle, and myocardium without a concomitant increase in hydration. Our data suggest that there is a hydration-dependent high interstitial fluid Na+ concentration that will contribute to the skin barrier and thus be a mechanism for limiting water loss. Salt stress results in intracellular storage of Na+ in exchange with K+ in skeletal muscle and myocardium that may have electromechanical consequences. Key points: Studies have suggested that Na+ can be retained or removed without commensurate water retention or loss, and that the skin plays a role as major Na+ reservoir via regulation of the content of glycosaminoglycans and osmotic gradients. In the present study, we investigated whether there were electrolyte gradients in skin and where Na+ could be stored to be inactivated from a fluid balance viewpoint. We used two common models for salt-sensitive hypertension: high salt and a deoxycorticosterone salt diet. We found a hydration-dependent high interstitial fluid Na+ concentration that will contribute to the skin barrier and thus be a mechanism for limiting water loss. There was intracellular Na+ storage in muscle and myocardium without a concomitant increase in hydration, comprising storage that may have electromechanical consequences in salt stress.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2293-2309
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Physiology
Volume600
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - May 15 2022

Keywords

  • Na storage
  • extracellular volume
  • hypertension
  • oedema

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