Measuring temperature in cells and tissues remotely, with sufficient sensitivity, and in real time presents a new paradigm in engineering, chemistry and biology. Traditional sensors, such as contact thermometers, thermocouples, and electrodes, are too large to measure the temperature with subcellular resolution and are too invasive to measure the temperature in deep tissue. The new challenge requires novel approaches in designing biocompatible temperature sensors - nanothermometers - and innovative techniques for their measurements. In the last two decades, a variety of nanothermometers whose response reflected the thermal environment within a physiological temperature range have been identified as potential sensors. This review covers the principles and aspects of nanothermometer design driven by two emerging areas: single-cell thermogenesis and image guided thermal treatments. The review highlights the current trends in nanothermometry illustrated with recent representative examples. Hot or cold? The review highlights the general mechanisms and principles behind temperature measurements using nanothermometers within a physiologically relevant temperature range (20-80 C) in cells and in vivo.
|Number of pages||10|
|State||Published - Jan 4 2016|
- cell thermogenesis
- temperature sensors
- thermal ablation