Nanotechnology in interventional cardiology

Tillmann Cyrus, Samuel A. Wickline, Gregory M. Lanza

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations

Abstract

High-grade atherosclerotic stenoses are reduced to zero or minimal residual stenosis grades by a single or a series of balloon angioplasties. Currently, stents are implanted to prevent immediate vascular recoil and elution of an antimitotic drug from the stent struts minimizes restenosis. An unwanted side-effect of this drug elution is delayed re-endothelialization which requires treatment with two anti-platelet drugs, in many cases for a minimum of 1 year to prevent acute in-stent thrombosis. Advances in stent design and drug elution technology, now in its fourth generation, have not abated this issue. Nanotechnology-based local drug delivery has the potential to achieve restenosis prevention while not impeding endothelial healing. Molecularly targeted drugs can be aimed to specifically bind to epitopes in the injured media and adventitia. Thus, endothelial healing may progress unhindered. To prevent restenosis, this technology may be used with bare metal or biodegradable stents. In this article novel nanoparticulate agents will be compared regarding their potential to deliver drugs to molecular targets within the vascular wall. Potential molecular targets, targeting mechanisms, drug-delivery propensities, and biocompatibility will be reviewed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)82-95
Number of pages14
JournalWiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Volume4
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2012

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