Previous work had identified a corepressor, NAB1, which represses transcriptional activation mediated by NGFI-A (also known as Egr-1, zif268, and Krox24) and Krox20. These zinc finger transcription factors are encoded by immediate-early genes and have been implicated in a wide variety of proliferative and differentiative processes. We have isolated and characterized another corepressor. NAB2, which is highly related to NAB1 within two discrete domains. The first conserved domain of NAB2 mediates an interaction with the R1 domain of NGFI-A. NAB2 represses the activity of both NGFI-A and Krox20, and its expression is regulated by some of the same stimuli that induce NGFI-A expression, including serum stimulation of fibroblasts and nerve growth factor stimulation of PC12 cells. The human NAB2 gene has been localized to chromosome 12q13.314.1, a region that is rearranged in several solid tumors, lipomas, uterine leiomyomata, and liposarcomas. Sequencing of the Caenorhabditis elegans genome has identified a gene that bears high homology to both NAB1 and NAB2, suggesting that NAB molecules fulfill an evolutionarily conserved role.