Most neurons of both the central and peripheral nervous systems express multiple members of the myosin superfamily that include nonmuscle myosin II, and a number of classes of unconventional myosins. Several classes of unconventional myosins found in neurons have been shown to play important roles in transport processes. A general picture of the myosin-dependent transport processes in neurons is beginning to emerge, although much more work still needs to be done to fully define these roles and establish the importance of myosin for axonal transport. Myosins appear to contribute to three types of transport processes in neurons; recycling of receptors or other membrane components, dynamic tethering of vesicular components, and transport or tethering of protein translational machinery including mRNA. Defects in one or more of these functions have potential to contribute to disease processes.