Development of the nervous system requires remarkable changes in cell structure that are dependent upon the cytoskeleton. The importance of specific components of the neuronal cytoskeleton, such as microtubules and neurofilaments, to neuronal function and development has been well established. Recently, increasing focus has been put on understanding the functional role of the actin cytoskeleton in neurons. Important modulators of the actin cytoskeleton are the large family of myosins, many of which (classes I, II, III, V, VI, VII, IX, and XV; Fig. 1) are expressed in developing neurons or sensory cells. Myosins are force-producing proteins that have been implicated in a wide variety of cellular functions in the developing nervous system, including neuronal migration, process out-growth, and growth cone motility, as well as other aspects of morphogenesis, axonal transport, and synaptic and sensory functions. We review the roles that neuronal myosins play in these functions with particular focus on the first three events listed above, as well as sensory function.