Myocardial Perfusion PET for the Detection and Reporting of Coronary Microvascular Dysfunction: A JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging Expert Panel Statement

Thomas H. Schindler, William F. Fearon, Matthieu Pelletier-Galarneau, Giuseppe Ambrosio, Udo Sechtem, Terrence D. Ruddy, Krishna K. Patel, Deepak L. Bhatt, Timothy M. Bateman, Henry Gewirtz, Jamshid Shirani, Juhani Knuuti, Robert J. Gropler, Panithaya Chareonthaitawee, Riemer H.J.A. Slart, Stephan Windecker, Philipp A. Kaufmann, Maria R. Abraham, Viviany R. Taqueti, Thomas J. FordPaolo G. Camici, Heinrich R. Schelbert, Vasken Dilsizian

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Angina pectoris and dyspnea in patients with normal or nonobstructive coronary vessels remains a diagnostic challenge. Invasive coronary angiography may identify up to 60% of patients with nonobstructive coronary artery disease (CAD), of whom nearly two-thirds may, in fact, have coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) that may account for their symptoms. Positron emission tomography (PET) determined absolute quantitative myocardial blood flow (MBF) at rest and during hyperemic vasodilation with subsequent derivation of myocardial flow reserve (MFR) affords the noninvasive detection and delineation of CMD. Individualized or intensified medical therapies with nitrates, calcium-channel blockers, statins, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II type 1-receptor blockers, beta-blockers, ivabradine, or ranolazine may improve symptoms, quality of life, and outcome in these patients. Standardized diagnosis and reporting criteria for ischemic symptoms caused by CMD are critical for optimized and individualized treatment decisions in such patients. In this respect, it was proposed by the cardiovascular council leadership of the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging to convene thoughtful leaders from around the world to serve as an independent expert panel to develop standardized diagnosis, nomenclature and nosology, and cardiac PET reporting criteria for CMD. This consensus document aims to provide an overview of the pathophysiology and clinical evidence of CMD, its invasive and noninvasive assessment, standardization of PET-determined MBFs and MFR into “classical” (predominantly related to hyperemic MBFs) and “endogen” (predominantly related to resting MBF) normal coronary microvascular function or CMD that may be critical for diagnosis of microvascular angina, subsequent patient care, and outcome of clinical CMD trials.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)536-548
Number of pages13
JournalJACC: Cardiovascular Imaging
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2023


  • coronary artery disease
  • coronary circulation
  • coronary flow reserve
  • microvascular dysfunction
  • myocardial blood flow
  • myocardial perfusion imaging
  • positron emission tomography


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