Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) usually accompanies a chronic hematologic disease in adults or prematurity in neonates. We observed a striking case of EMH in the explanted heart of a 13-year-old boy who underwent transplantation after extensive myocardial infarction. The florid myeloid proliferation raised the possibility of a leukemic process. To our knowledge, extensive myocardial EMH subsequent to myocardial infarction has not been previously reported. Possible mechanisms underlying EMH in the myocardium are presented.