It has been shown that different types of pathogens induce different immune responses. Recovery from intracellular bacterial and viral infection is dependent on the secretion of Th1 cytokines, such as interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and on the generation of cytotoxic T cells. In contrast, responses to some parasitic invaders are of the Th2 type, characterized by secretion of interleukin-4 (IL-4). At present, it is not clear what directs this choice, and the most prevalent hypotheses are based on the dendritic cells (DC). In this work, we studied the immune responses generated in mice to a number of antigens, both replicating and nonreplicating, using bone marrow-derived DC as vehicles for immunization. We demonstrate that DC infected with influenza virus prime for a pure Th1 responsein vivo devoid of IL-4 induction. This immune response correlates with the induction of DC maturation by the virus. In contrast, nonreplicating antigens, such as fetal bovine serum (FBS), β-galactosidase, or inactivated influenza virus, do not mature the DC and prime for responses characterized by the secretion of large amounts of IL-4. These data support the hypothesis that myeloid DC are capable of eliciting both types of responses depending on the nature of the antigen.