Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome (SDS) is a rare multisystem disorder characterized by exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, bone marrow dysfunction, and metaphyseal chondrodysplasia. Recent studies show that mutations of SBDS, a gene of unknown function, are present in the majority of patients with SDS. In the present study, we show that most, but not all, patients classified based on rigorous clinical criteria as having SDS had compound heterozygous mutations of SBDS. Full-length SBDS protein was not detected in leukocytes of SDS patients with the most common SBDS mutations, consistent with a loss-of-function mechanism. In contrast, SBDS protein was expressed at normal levels in SDS patients without SBDS mutations. These data confirm the absence of SBDS mutations in this subgroup of patients and suggest that SDS is a genetically heterogeneous disorder. The presence (or absence) of SBDS mutations may define subgroups of patients with SDS who share distinct clinical features or natural history.