This chapter describes the nature and magnitude of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) and their prevention and control. The incidence and severity of musculoskeletal disorders is described by body region and by occupation, and a conceptual model for the contributors and pathways to developing WRMSDs is described. Neck disorders and upper-extremity disorders as well as low back pain and lower-extremity disorders are described in detail, including evaluation, diagnosis, and prevention. Personal factors, physical exposures, and psychosocial stress that contribute to the development of WRMSDs are described. Ergonomic interventions to reduce or eliminate physical exposures are stressed as critically important preventive measures.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationOccupational and Environmental Health
PublisherOxford University Press
Number of pages28
ISBN (Print)9780190662677
StatePublished - Nov 23 2017


  • Ergonomics interventions
  • Low back pain
  • Lower-extremity disorders
  • Musculoskeletal disorders
  • Neck disorders
  • Physical exposures
  • Prevention
  • Psychosocial stress
  • Upper-extremity disorders


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