Purpose/objectives: Multiparametric advanced MR and [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) imaging may be important biomarkers for prognosis as well for distinguishing recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) from treatment- related changes. Methods/materials: We retrospectively evaluated 30 patients treated with chemoradiation for GBM and underwent advanced MR and FDG-PET for confirmation of tumor progression. Multiparametric MRI and FDG-PET imaging metrics were evaluated for their association with 6-month overall (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) based on pathological, radiographic, and clinical criteria. results: 17 males and 13 females were treated between 2001 and 2014, and later underwent FDG-PET at suspected recurrence. Baseline FDG-PET and MRI imaging was obtained at a median of 7.5 months [interquartile range (IQR) 3.7-12.4] following completion of chemoradiation. Median follow-up after FDG-PET imaging was 10 months (IQR 7.2-13.0). Receiver-operator characteristic curve analysis identified that lesions characterized by a ratio of the SUVmax to the normal contralateral brain (SUVmax/NB index) > 1.5 and mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of =1,400 × 10-6 mm2/s correlated with worse 6-month OS and PFS. We defined three patient groups that predicted the probability of tumor progression: SUVmax/NB index > 1.5 and ADC ≤1,400 × 10-6 mm2/s defined high-risk patients (n = 7), SUVmax/NB index ≤1.5 and ADC > 1,400 × 10-6 mm2/s defined low-risk patients (n = 11), and intermediate-risk (n = 12) defined the remainder of the patients. Median OS following the time of the FDG-PET scan for the low, intermediate, and high-risk groups were 23.5, 10.5, and 3.8 months (p < 0.01). Median PFS were 10.0, 4.4, and 1.9 months (p = 0.03). Rates of progression at 6-months in the low, intermediate, and high-risk groups were 36, 67, and 86% (p = 0.04). conclusion:Recurrent GBM in the molecular era is associated with highly variable outcomes. Multiparametric MR and FDG-PET biomarkers may provide a clinically relevant, non-invasive and cost-effective method of predicting prognosis and improving clinical decision making in the treatment of patients with suspected tumor recurrence.
- Apparent diffusion coefficient
- [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography