Objective: To describe and quantify the structural and functional consequences of retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukoencephalopathy (RVCL) on the neurosensory retina. Design: Cross sectional descriptive study from December 2021 to December 2022. Participants: Retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukoencephalopathy patients (n = 9, 18 eyes) recruited from the RVCL Research Center at Washington University in St. Louis. Methods: Retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukoencephalopathy patients underwent comprehensive ophthalmological evaluation including OCT, OCT angiography (OCTA), ultrawidefield fundus imaging, retinal autofluorescence, dark adaptation, electroretinography (ERG), Goldmann kinetic perimetry, and fluorescein angiography (FA). Main Outcome Measures: Comprehensive characterization from various modalities including best-corrected visual acuity, central subfield thickness (μm) from OCT, foveal avascular zone (mm2) from OCTA, dark adaptation rod intercept (seconds), cone response in ERG, and presence or absence of vascular abnormalities, leakage, neovascularization, and nonperfusion on FA. Results: A total of 18 eyes from 9 individuals were included in this study. The best-corrected visual acuity ranged from 20/15 to 20/70. The mean central subfield thickness from OCT was 275.8 μm (range, 217–488 μm). The mean foveal avascular zone (FAZ) from OCTA was 0.65 (range, 0.18–1.76) mm2. On dark adaptometry, the mean time was 5.02 (range, 2.9–6.5) minutes, and 1 individual had impaired dark adaptation. Electroretinography demonstrated mild cone response impairment in 4 eyes. On FA, there was evidence of macular and peripheral capillary nonperfusion in 16 of 18 eyes and notable areas of vascular leakage and retinal edema in 5 of the 18 eyes. Conclusions: This study illustrates the phenotypic spectrum of disease and may be clinically valuable for aiding diagnosis, monitoring disease progression, and further elucidating the pathophysiology of RVCL to aid in the development of therapies. Financial Disclosure(s): Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found in the Footnotes and Disclosures at the end of this article.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)331-339
Number of pages9
JournalOphthalmology Retina
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2024


  • FA
  • Multimodal characterization
  • OCT
  • OCT-A
  • Retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukoencephalopathy


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