13 Scopus citations


We conducted PrediXcan analysis of hydrocephalus risk in ten neurological tissues and whole blood. Decreased expression of MAEL in the brain was significantly associated (Bonferroni-adjusted p < 0.05) with hydrocephalus. PrediXcan analysis of brain imaging and genomics data in the independent UK Biobank (N = 8,428) revealed that MAEL expression in the frontal cortex is associated with white matter and total brain volumes. Among the top differentially expressed genes in brain, we observed a significant enrichment for gene-level associations with these structural phenotypes, suggesting an effect on disease risk through regulation of brain structure and integrity. We found additional support for these genes through analysis of the choroid plexus transcriptome of a murine model of hydrocephalus. Finally, differential protein expression analysis in patient cerebrospinal fluid recapitulated disease-associated expression changes in neurological tissues, but not in whole blood. Our findings provide convergent evidence highlighting the importance of tissue-specific pathways and mechanisms in the pathophysiology of hydrocephalus.

Original languageEnglish
Article number109085
JournalCell Reports
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 4 2021


  • BioVU
  • GWAS
  • PrediXcan
  • TWAS
  • UK Biobank
  • electronic health records
  • human genetics
  • hydrocephalus
  • neurodevelopmental disorders
  • proteomics
  • transcriptomics


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