Multi-frequency electrical impedance tomography of the breast: New clinical results

Nirmal K. Soni, Alex Hartov, Christine Kogel, Steven P. Poplack, Keith D. Paulsen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

42 Scopus citations


Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) has been used in the recent past for a number of clinical applications. In this work we present recent tomographic and spectroscopic findings for breast imaging from clinical exams completed at Dartmouth. The results presented here are based on 18 normal and 24 abnormal subjects. The participants were classified as normal or abnormal using the American College of Radiology (ACR) indexing system for mammograms. The EIT data were collected for ten discrete frequencies in the range 10 kHz-1 MHz using a single array of 16 electrodes. The finite element method was used to reconstruct the images. The images were examined visually and were compared with mammograms. The results were also analyzed based on zonal averages of property values and breast tissue radiodensities. Statistical analysis showed a significance difference between the mean conductivity and permittivity values of normal and abnormal subjects for various zones defined on the reconstructed images. Tissues with high radiodensity also had increased conductivity and permittivity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)301-314
Number of pages14
JournalPhysiological Measurement
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2004


  • Breast cancer screening
  • Breast imaging
  • Electrical impedance tomography


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