Mucosal and systemic neutralizing antibodies to norovirus induced in infant mice orally inoculated with recombinant rotaviruses

Takahiro Kawagishi, Liliana Sánchez-Tacuba, Ningguo Feng, Veronica P. Costantini, Ming Tan, Xi Jiang, Kim Y. Green, Jan Vinjé, Siyuan Ding, Harry B. Greenberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Rotaviruses (RVs) preferentially replicate in the small intestine and frequently cause severe diarrheal disease, and the following enteric infection generally induces variable levels of protective systemic and mucosal immune responses in humans and other animals. Rhesus rotavirus (RRV) is a simian RV that was previously used as a human RV vaccine and has been extensively studied in mice. Although RRV replicates poorly in the suckling mouse intestine, infection induces a robust and protective antibody response. The recent availability of plasmid only-based RV reverse genetics systems has enabled the generation of recombinant RVs expressing foreign proteins. However, recombinant RVs have not yet been experimentally tested as potential vaccine vectors to immunize against other gastrointestinal pathogens in vivo. This is a newly available opportunity because several live-attenuated RV vaccines are already widely administered to infants and young children worldwide. To explore the feasibility of using RV as a dual vaccine vector, we rescued replication-competent recombinant RRVs harboring bicistronic gene segment 7 that encodes the native RV nonstructural protein 3 (NSP3) protein and a human norovirus (HuNoV) VP1 protein or P domain from the predominant genotype GII.4. The rescued viruses expressed HuNoV VP1 or P protein in infected cells in vitro and elicited systemic and local antibody responses to HuNoV and RRV following oral infection of suckling mice. Serum IgG and fecal IgA from infected suckling mice bound to and neutralized both RRV and HuNoV. These findings have encouraging practical implications for the design of RV-based next-generation multivalent enteric vaccines to target HuNoV and other human enteric pathogens.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere2214421120
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number9
StatePublished - Feb 28 2023


  • enteric pathogens
  • enteric viral vector
  • mucosal vaccination
  • norovirus
  • rotavirus


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