MRI preclinical detection and asymptomatic course of a progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (PML) under natalizumab therapy

Rémy Phan-Ba, Emilie Lommers, Luaba Tshibanda, Philippe Calay, Bernard Dubois, Gustave Moonen, David Clifford, Shibeshih Belachew

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

60 Scopus citations

Abstract

Early detection of progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (PML) in the setting of natalizumab therapy currently is performed by rapid evaluation of new symptoms occurring in treated patients. The role of MR scanning has not been investigated but holds promise since MR detection is highly sensitive for PML lesions. The authors report a case of presymptomatic PML of the posterior fossa detected by MR scans. Immediate suspension of natalizumab and plasma exchanges resulted in a rapid decline of natalizumab serum concentration. Intravenous steroids started together with plasma exchanges followed by an oral tapering course were used to minimise the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. No symptoms (beyond mild headache) developed, and the repeat PCR for JC Virus (JCV) DNA detection performed 10 weeks later was negative. This case suggests that: (1) periodic brain MR scans may detect signs of presymptomatic PML in MS patients treated with natalizumab, (2) corticosteroid management of inflammatory reaction may contribute to optimal control of the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome routinely seen with natalizumab-associated PML and (3) early radiological detection of PML can have an excellent outcome even in a clinically critical region and despite prior immunosuppressant exposure. The potential benefit of regular MR scanning just using the T2/FLAIR modalities could be further investigated in order to detect early natalizumab-associated PML, leading to benign outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)224-226
Number of pages3
JournalJournal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry
Volume83
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2012

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