Objectives: We retrospectively analyzed data of the BECOME trial to investigate whether serial administration of triple-dose (3-dose) gadopentetate dimeglumine would result in the development of T1 signal-to-noise (S/N) changes in the cranial diploic space and whether S/N changes correlated with on-study hypophosphatemia. Methods: Signal intensity analysis was performed on the first year's data of the BECOME trial using 3-dose Gd (14 months, maximum number of doses, 39, mean: 36). Routine blood and urine tests were obtained each month for safety monitoring. Linear mixed regression modeling with random intercept was used to analyze monthly signal-to-noise ratio (S/N = Bone/Air) using an ROI of the diploic space created from T2W images and overlaid on T1FS (T1 fat-saturated) images. Incidence of phosphate abnormalities was analyzed using the general estimation equation; correlation of phosphate and S/N change was achieved with type 3 test of fixed effects. Results: Cranial diploic space T1FS S/N increased over 14 months: S/N = 0.039 mean monthly increase (S.E. 0.008; p < 0.0001). Subjects with consistently normal phosphate levels (n = 32) experienced more of a S/N increase than patients with at least one episode of hypophosphatemia (n = 35) (0.057 vs. 0.023, respectively, p = 0.037). Those with moderate hypophosphatemia demonstrated no significant S/N increase. Conclusion: Monthly administration of 3-dose gadopentetate dimeglumine is associated with development of increased S/N on T1FS imaging in the cranial diploic space, suggesting Gd retention in bone. Our data suggests MRI could be used as a noninvasive method of tracking Gd retention in bone, which was more pronounced in patients with normal phosphate levels.
- Contrast media
- Gadolinium deposition disease