Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the scrotum with a high-resolution surface coil was performed in ten healthy volunteers and 20 patients with scrotal abnormalities demonstrated by high-resolution real-time ultrasound (US). Four patients had an abnormal testis (two tumors, one cyst, one testicular atrophy), and 16 patients had extratesticular abnormalities (four hydroceles, five epididymal cysts, one hernia, and six cases of epididymitis). The normal structures of the scrotum were depicted clearly on MR images. In all cases, the tunica albuginea was easily differentiated from the testis and epididymis. MR imaging enabled one to distinguish intratesticular from extratesticular lesions and to determine whether a lesion was solid or cystic. Complicated and simple fluid collections could also be differentiated. In general, MR imaging and US scanning provided similar information. A potential advantage of MR imaging is in the evaluation of patients with painful scrotal lesions that may limit US evaluation.