Purpose: Ablative radiation therapy for borderline resectable or locally advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (BR/LA-PDAC) may limit concurrent chemotherapy dosing and usually is only safely deliverable to tumors distant from gastrointestinal organs. Magnetic resonance guided radiation therapy may safely permit radiation and chemotherapy dose escalation. Methods and Materials: We conducted a single-arm phase I study to determine the maximum tolerated dose of ablative hypofractionated radiation with full-dose gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel in patients with BR/LA-PDAC. Patients were treated with gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel (1000/125 mg/m2) x 1c then concurrent gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel and radiation. Gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel and radiation doses were escalated per time-to-event continual reassessment method from 40 to 45 Gy 25 fxs with chemotherapy (600-800/75 mg/m2) to 60 to 67.5 Gy/15 fractions and concurrent gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel (1000/100 mg/m2). The primary endpoint was maximum tolerated dose of radiation as defined by 60-day dose limiting toxicity (DLT). DLT was treatment-related G5, G4 hematologic, or G3 gastrointestinal requiring hospitalization >3 days. Secondary endpoints included resection rates, local progression free survival (LPFS), distant metastasis free survival (DMFS), and overall survival (OS). Results: Thirty patients enrolled (March 2015-February 2019), with 26 evaluable patients (2 progressed before radiation, 1 was determined ineligible for radiation during planning, 1 withdrew consent). One DLT was observed. The DLT rate was 14.1% (3.3%-24.9%) with a maximum tolerated dose of gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel (1000/100 mg/m2) and 67.5 Gy/15 fractions. At a median follow-up of 40.6 months for living patients the median OS was 14.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.9-28.2 months). The median OS for patients with Eastern Collaborative Oncology Group 0 and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 <90 were 34.1 (95% CI, 13.6-54.1) and 43.0 (95% CI, 8.0-not reached) months, respectively. Two-year LPFS and DMFS were 85% (95% CI, 63%-94%) and 57% (95% CI, 34%-73%), respectively. Conclusions: Full-dose gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel with ablative magnetic resonance guided radiation therapy dosing is safe in patients with BR/LA-PDAC, with promising LPFS and DMFS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)214-223
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2023


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