We recently demonstrated that microRNA-218 (miR-218) is greatly enriched in motor neurons and is released extracellularly in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis model rats. To determine if the released, motor neuron-derived miR-218 may have a functional role in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, we examined the effect of miR-218 on neighbouring astrocytes. Surprisingly, we found that extracellular, motor neuron-derived miR-218 can be taken up by astrocytes and is sufficient to downregulate an important glutamate transporter in astrocytes [excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2)]. The effect of miR-218 on astrocytes extends beyond EAAT2 since miR-218 binding sites are enriched in mRNAs translationally downregulated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis astrocytes. Inhibiting miR-218 with antisense oligonucleotides in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis model mice mitigates the loss of EAAT2 and other miR-218-mediated changes, providing an important in vivo demonstration of the relevance of microRNAmediated communication between neurons and astrocytes. These data define a novel mechanism in neurodegeneration whereby microRNAs derived from dying neurons can directly modify the glial phenotype and cause astrocyte dysfunction.
|Number of pages||15|
|State||Published - Sep 1 2018|
- extracellular miRNA
- neuron-glia communication
- non-cell autonomous