Motion management within two respiratory-gating windows: Feasibility study of dual quasi-breath-hold technique in gated medical procedures

Taeho Kim, Siyong Kim, Yang Kyun Park, Kaylin K. Youn, Paul Keall, Rena Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


A dual quasi-breath-hold (DQBH) technique is proposed for respiratory motion management (a hybrid technique combining breathing-guidance with breath-hold task in the middle). The aim of this study is to test a hypothesis that the DQBH biofeedback system improves both the capability of motion management and delivery efficiency. Fifteen healthy human subjects were recruited for two respiratory motion measurements (free breathing and DQBH biofeedback breathing for 15 min). In this study, the DQBH biofeedback system utilized the abdominal position obtained using an real-time position management (RPM) system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, USA) to audio-visually guide a human subject for 4 s breath-hold at EOI and 90% EOE (EOE90%) to improve delivery efficiency. We investigated the residual respiratory motion and the delivery efficiency (duty-cycle) of abdominal displacement within the gating window. The improvement of the abdominal motion reproducibility was evaluated in terms of cycle-to-cycle displacement variability, respiratory period and baseline drift. The DQBH biofeedback system improved the abdominal motion management capability compared to that with free breathing. With a phase based gating (mean ± std: 55 ± 5%), the averaged root mean square error (RMSE) of the abdominal displacement in the dual-gating windows decreased from 2.26 mm of free breathing to 1.16 mm of DQBH biofeedback (p-value = 0.007). The averaged RMSE of abdominal displacement over the entire respiratory cycles reduced from 2.23 mm of free breathing to 1.39 mm of DQBH biofeedback breathing in the dual-gating windows (p-value = 0.028). The averaged baseline drift dropped from 0.9 mm min-1 with free breathing to 0.09 mm min-1 with DQBH biofeedback (p-value = 0.048). The averaged duty-cycle with an 1 mm width of displacement bound increased from 15% of free breathing to 26% of DQBH biofeedback (p-value = 0.003). The study demonstrated that the DQBH biofeedback system has the potential to significantly reduce the residual respiratory motion with the improved duty cycle during the respiratory gating procedure.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6583
Pages (from-to)6583-6594
Number of pages12
JournalPhysics in medicine and biology
Issue number21
StatePublished - Nov 7 2014


  • duty-cycle
  • quasi-breath-hold biofeedback
  • respiratory motion management


Dive into the research topics of 'Motion management within two respiratory-gating windows: Feasibility study of dual quasi-breath-hold technique in gated medical procedures'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this