Monte Carlo-aided dosimetry of the Theragenics Theraseed® Model 200 103Pd interstitial brachytherapy seed

James I. Monroe, Jeffrey F. Williamson

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47 Scopus citations


A dosimetric study of a 103Pd seed for permanent interstitial brachytherapy, the Theragenics Corporation Model 200 (TheraSeed®), has been undertaken utilizing Monte Carlo photon-transport (MCPT) simulations. All dosimetric quantities recommended by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group 43 (TG-43) [Med. Phys. 22, 209-234 (1995)] report have been calculated. This source contains graphite pellets coated with palladium metal, within which the radioactive 103Pd is distributed. Due to the significant influence of this metal coating thickness on the dose distribution, two coating thicknesses, 2.2 μm (light seed, representing currently available seeds) and 10.5 μm (heavy seed, representing reactor-produced seeds available before 1994), were analyzed. Quantities determined are the following: dose rate constant, radial dose function, anisotropy function, anisotropy factor, anisotropy constant, and "along and away" dose tables. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Wide Angle Free Air Chamber (WAFAC) standard for air-kerma strength (SK, N99) was simulated, allowing a comparison to measured dosimetry data normalized to SK, N99. The calculated dose-rate constants are 0.691 (light seed) and 0.694 cGy h-1U-1(heavy seed), where 1 U = 1 μGy·m2·h-1, in contrast to the recommended TG-43 value of 0.74 cGy h-1U-1and the value, 0.665 cGy h-1U-1, recommended by AAPM report 69 [Med. Phys. 27, 634-642 (2000)]. Anisotropy constants (1/r2weighted average, r≥1 cm) are 0.862 and 0.884 for the light seed and heavy seed, respectively. A generalization of the AAPM formalism [Med. Phys. 27, 634-642] for evaluating the time-dependent ratio of an administered-to-prescribed dose is presented. The findings of this study, in combination with 5% corrections applied to WAFAC measurements performed in 1999, imply that changes in the AAPM's recommended ratios as large as 6%, are indicated.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)609-621
Number of pages13
JournalMedical physics
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2002


  • Dosimetry
  • Monte carlo simulation
  • Pd-103
  • Permanent brachytherapy
  • Report 69
  • Task group 43


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