Several murine monoclonal anti-human Factor VII antibodies were produced using hybridoma technology. Two noncompetitive monoclonal antibodies were used to examine by Western blotting the Factor VII cross-reactive material (CRM) in normal human plasma and three commercially available congenitally Factor VII-deficient plasmas, and to construct a facile 'sandwich' immunoassay for plasma Factor VII. A second, previously undescribed, form of Factor VII CRM was detected in human plasma, which on Western blotting stained with an apparent intensity 5-8% that of Factor VII. This glycoprotein, tentatively called VII, has a molecular weight 4,500 D less than Factor VII, lacks detectable Factor VII functional activity, does not bind to barium citrate, and is not recognized by a monoclonal antibody that recognizes Factor VII but not α-chymotrypsin-treated Factor VII. VII was not proteolytically produced from Factor VII during in vitro coagulation or after infusion of human Factor VII into rabbits. As determined by Western blotting, the human hepatoma cell line, HepG2, cultured in the presence of vitamin K, secreted relatively greater levels of VII in proportion to VII (75%) than that found in human plasma. Warfarin treatment of HepG2 cells decreased the quantity of VII secreted by 77%, whereas it only inhibited the secretion of VII by 14%. Immunologic studies of the plasmas from a patient on chronic warfarin therapy and an individual given a short course of high dose warfarin therapy corroborated the in vitro synthetic studies obtained with HepG2 cells. The data are consistent with the production of VII by posttranslational, proteolytic, modification of VII, that, at least in the HepG2 cells studied, occurs intracellularly. However, other mechanisms for the production of VII, in particular, alternative RNA splicing of the transcript from a single gene, cannot be excluded.