Objective: Monoacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (Mogat1), a lipogenic enzyme that converts monoacylglycerol to diacylglycerol, is highly expressed in adipocytes and may regulate lipolysis by re-esterifying fatty acids released during times when lipolytic rates are low. However, the role of Mogat1 in regulating adipocyte fat storage during differentiation and diet-induced obesity is relatively understudied. Methods: Here, adipocyte-specific Mogat1 knockout mice were generated and subjected to a high-fat diet to determine the effects of Mogat1 deficiency on diet-induced obesity. Mogat1 floxed mice were also used to develop preadipocyte cell lines wherein Mogat1 could be conditionally knocked out to study adipocyte differentiation in vitro. Results: In preadipocytes, it was found that Mogat1 knockout at the onset of preadipocyte differentiation prevented the accumulation of glycerolipids and reduced the differentiation capacity of preadipocytes. However, the loss of adipocyte Mogat1 did not affect weight gain or fat mass induced by a high-fat diet in mice. Furthermore, loss of Mogat1 in adipocytes did not affect plasma lipid or glucose concentrations or insulin tolerance. Conclusions: These data suggest Mogat1 may play a role in adipocyte differentiation in vitro but not adipose tissue expansion in response to nutrient overload in mice.