Molecular Testing in Breast Cancer: Current Status and Future Directions

Lulu Sun, Ariel Wu, Gregory R. Bean, Ian S. Hagemann, Chieh Yu Lin

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Molecular testing in breast cancer is a rapidly developing field that is becoming increasingly integral to patient care. This article provides an overview of currently available molecular assays and testing modalities that have prognostic, predictive, and therapeutic value. These include multigene assays for invasive breast cancer (Oncotype DX, MammaPrint, Prosigna, and Breast Cancer Index) and ductal carcinoma in situ (Oncotype DX DCIS and DCISionRT) and companion tests to detect PIK3CA mutations and NTRK fusions. The various assays related to immune checkpoint inhibitors, consisting of immunohistochemistry with anti–programmed death-ligand 1 antibodies SP142 and 22C3 and detection of microsatellite instability, mismatch repair deficiency, and tumor mutational burden are also discussed. Finally, the practical utility and hopeful promise of next-generation sequencing panels and circulating tumor (cell-free) DNA assays are evaluated. This review should serve as a useful and practical reference for practicing pathologists, molecular pathologists, clinicians, and researchers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1422-1432
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Molecular Diagnostics
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2021


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