The next-generation sequencing revolution has substantially increased our understanding of the mutated genes that underlie complex neurodevelopmental disease. Exome sequencing has enabled us to estimate the number of genes involved in the etiology of neurodevelopmental disease, whereas targeted sequencing approaches have provided the means for quick and cost-effective sequencing of thousands of patient samples to assess the significance of individual genes. By leveraging such technologies and clinical exome sequencing, a genotype-first approach has emerged in which patients with a common genotype are first identified and then clinically reassessed as a group. This approach has proven a powerful methodology for refining disease subtypes. We propose that the molecular characterization of these genetic subtypes has important implications for diagnostics and also for future drug development. Classifying patients into subgroups with a common genetic etiology and applying treatments tailored to the specific molecular defect they carry is likely to improve management of neurodevelopmental disease in the future.