Recent advances in molecularly targeted modular designs for in vivo imaging applications has thrusted open possibilities of investigating deep molecular interactions non-invasively and dynamically. The shifting landscape of biomarker concentration and cellular interactions throughout pathological progression requires quick adaptation of imaging agents and detection modalities for accurate readouts. The synergy of state of art instrumentation with molecularly targeted molecules is resulting in more precise, accurate and reproducible data sets, which is facilitating investigation of several novel questions. Small molecules, peptides, antibodies and nanoparticles are some of the commonly used molecular targeting vectors that can be applied for imaging as well as therapy. The field of theranostics, which encompasses joint application of therapy and imaging, is successfully leveraging the multifunctional use of these biomolecules [1,2]. Sensitive detection of cancerous lesions and accurate assessment of treatment response has been transformative for patient management. Particularly, since bone metastasis is one of the dominant causes of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients, imaging can be hugely impactful in this patient population. The intent of this review is to highlight the utility of molecular positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in the context of prostate and breast bone metastatic cancer, and multiple myeloma. Furthermore, comparisons are drawn with traditionally utilized bone scans (skeletal scintigraphy). Both these modalities can be synergistic or complementary for assessing lytic- and blastic- bone lesions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100477
JournalJournal of Bone Oncology
StatePublished - Jun 2023


  • Bone metastasis
  • Bone scintigraphy
  • Breast cancer
  • Molecular imaging
  • Multiple myeloma
  • Nuclear imaging
  • Prostate cancer


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