Hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha) is a basic helix-loop-helix-PAS (bHLH-PAS) transcription factor that mediates certain cellular responses to low oxygen tension, iron chelators, Co2+, Ni2+, Mg2+, and low intracellular glucose concentration. Upon exposure to the above conditions, HIF-1 alpha is upregulated and heterodimerizes with the Ah receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT, also known as HIF-1 beta), the heterodimeric complex binds TACGTG-containing genomic enhancer elements, and activates transcription of target genes. As a first step in developing genetic models to study the biology related to cellular hypoxia, we have cloned the murine HIF-1 alpha cDNA, determined the tissue-specific expression of its mRNA, functionally analyzed its protein product, and characterized its promoter and its genomic structure. A comparison between the murine and human HIF-1 alpha protein sequence reveals 95%, 99%, and 83% identity in the bHLH, PAS, and variable domains, respectively. RNAse protection assays demonstrate that in adult mice, the mHIF-1 alpha mRNA is expressed at high levels in kidney, heart, brain, thymus, and placenta, with moderate expression in liver, spleen, testis, and lung and much lower expression in skeletal muscle testis. Northern blot analysis indicates that the mRNA of the murine HIF-1 alpha is transcribed in two forms, a major 4-kb species and a minor 5-kb species; both are present in all tissues examined. The Hif-1 alpha promoter is GC rich, does not have a TATA element near its transcriptional start site, and does not respond to hypoxia or Co2+. The mHIF-1 alpha structural gene is composed of 15 exons. The splice junction sites within the bHLH and the PAS domains of HIF-1 alpha gene are highly conserved with respect to a number of previously characterized members of the bHLH-PAS superfamily. However, unlike other bHLH-PAS genes, where the variable domain is encoded by 2 exons, the variable region of the mHIF-1 alpha gene is encoded by 7 exons. Furthermore, most of these splice junction sites in the variable region are conserved with that of HIF-2 alpha, a recently cloned hypoxia-responsive bHLH-PAS protein (also known as MOP2, EPAS1, and HLF). These data suggest that HIF-1 alpha, along with HIF-2 alpha, represents a new subclass of the bHLH-PAS superfamily.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)287-299
Number of pages13
JournalGene expression
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1997


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