Fusions involving neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase (NTRK) genes are detected in ≤2% of gliomas and can promote gliomagenesis. The remarkable therapeutic efficacy of TRK inhibitors, which are among the first Food and Drug Administration-approved targeted therapies for NTRK-fused gliomas, has generated significant clinical interest in characterizing these tumors. In this multi-institutional retrospective study of 42 gliomas with NTRK fusions, next generation DNA sequencing (n = 41), next generation RNA sequencing (n = 1), RNA-sequencing fusion panel (n = 16), methylation profile analysis (n = 18), and histologic evaluation (n = 42) were performed. All infantile NTRK-fused gliomas (n = 7) had high-grade histology and, with one exception, no other significant genetic alterations. Pediatric NTRK-fused gliomas (n = 13) typically involved NTRK2, ranged from low- to high-histologic grade, and demonstrated histologic overlap with desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma, pilocytic astrocytoma, ganglioglioma, and glioblastoma, among other entities, but they rarely matched with high confidence to known methylation class families or with each other; alterations involving ATRX, PTEN, and CDKN2A/2B were present in a subset of cases. Adult NTRK-fused gliomas (n = 22) typically involved NTRK1 and had predominantly high-grade histology; genetic alterations involving IDH1, ATRX, TP53, PTEN, TERT promoter, RB1, CDKN2A/2B, NF1, and polysomy 7 were common. Unsupervised principal component analysis of methylation profiles demonstrated no obvious grouping by histologic grade, NTRK gene involved, or age group. KEGG pathway analysis detected methylation differences in genes involved in PI3K/AKT, MAPK, and other pathways. In summary, the study highlights the clinical, histologic, and molecular heterogeneity of NTRK-fused gliomas, particularly when stratified by age group.
- NGS sequencing