Group II pulmonary hypertension (PH) commonly occurs in the setting of a pressure-overloaded left ventricle (LV) which is also conducive to the development of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Population trends and a high prevalence of underlying causative conditions, such as essential hypertension or aortic stenosis, have increased the awareness of the pressure-overloaded LV and associated group II pulmonary hypertension. Patients often exhibit poor exercise tolerance and signs of heart failure indistinguishable from systolic heart failure; but effective medical treatments in this area have been lacking. Recent preclinical work has shed light on how the down-regulated nitric oxide - cyclic GMP pathway (within the myocardium and pulmonary vasculature) contributes to the pathophysiology of these associated conditions. This article will discuss the impact of the nitric oxide - cyclic GMP pathway on the pathogenesis of the pressure-overloaded LV and group II pulmonary hypertension, and will also introduce the potential therapeutic value of modulating this pathway.