Modifiable risk factors of ecstasy use: Risk perception, current dependence, perceived control, and depression

Kit Sang Leung, Arbi Ben Abdallah, Jan Copeland, Linda B. Cottler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


Risk perception, perceived behavioral control of obtaining ecstasy (PBC-obtaining), current ecstasy dependence, and recent depression have been associated with past ecstasy use, however, their utility in predicting ecstasy use has not been demonstrated. This study aimed to determine whether these four modifiable risk factors could predict ecstasy use after controlling for socio-demographic covariates and recent polydrug use. Data from 601 ecstasy users in the National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded TriCity Study of Club Drug Use, Abuse and Dependence were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Participants were interviewed twice within a 2-week period using standardized instruments. Thirteen percent (n = 80) of the participants reported using ecstasy between the two interviews. Low risk perception, high PBC-obtaining (an estimated ecstasy procurement time < 24 h), and current ecstasy dependence were statistically associated with ecstasy use between the two interviews. Recent depression was not a significant predictor. Despite not being a target predictor, recent polydrug use was also statistically associated with ecstasy use. The present findings may inform the development of interventions targeting ecstasy users.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)201-208
Number of pages8
JournalAddictive Behaviors
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2010


  • Dependence
  • Depression
  • Ecstasy
  • MDMA
  • Perceived control
  • Risk perception


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