Modeling methods have been employed to further characterize the physical and physiologic processes of filling and diastolic function. They have led to more detailed understanding of the effect of alteration of physiologic parameters on the Doppler E-wave contour as well as pulmonary vein flow. Depending on the modeling approach, different aspects of the filling process have been considered from AV gradient and net compliance to atrial appendage function to the mechanical suction pump attribute of the heart. The models have been applied for further characterization of diastolic function and elucidation of novel basic physiologic relations. We trust that readers recognize that this article could not serve as a comprehensive and global review of the state-of-the-art in physiologic modeling, but rather as a selective overview, with emphasis on the main modeling principles and options currently in use. Modeling of systems physiology, especially as it relates to the function of the four-chamber heart, remains a fertile area of investigation. Future progress is likely to have profound influence on (noninvasive) diagnosis and quantitation of the effect of therapy and lead to continued discovery of 'new' (macroscopic, cellular, and molecular biologic) physiology.