Model-based normalization for iterative 3D PET image reconstruction

B. Bai, Q. Li, C. H. Holdsworth, E. Asma, Y. C. Tai, A. Chatziioannou, R. M. Leahy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

55 Scopus citations


We describe a method for normalization in 3D PET for use with maximum a posteriori (MAP) or other iterative model-based image reconstruction methods. This approach is an extension of previous factored normalization methods in which we include separate factors for detector sensitivity, geometric response, block effects and deadtime. Since our MAP reconstruction approach already models some of the geometric factors in the forward projection, the normalization factors must be modified to account only for effects not already included in the model. We describe a maximum likelihood approach to joint estimation of the count-rate independent normalization factors, which we apply to data from a uniform cylindrical source. We then compute block-wise and block-profile deadtime correction factors using singles and coincidence data, respectively, from a multiframe cylindrical source. We have applied this method for reconstruction of data from the Concorde microPET P4 scanner. Quantitative evaluation of this method using well-counter measurements of activity in a multicompartment phantom compares favourably with normalization based directly on cylindrical source measurements.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2773-2784
Number of pages12
JournalPhysics in medicine and biology
Issue number15
StatePublished - Aug 7 2002


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