Enforced egress of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) out of the bone marrow (BM) into the peripheral circulation, termed mobilization, has come a long way since its discovery over four decades ago. Mobilization research continues to be driven by the need to optimize the regimen currently available in the clinic with regard to pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile, costs, and donor convenience. In this review, we describe the most recent findings in the field and how we anticipate them to affect the development of mobilization strategies in the future. Furthermore, the significance of mobilization beyond HSC collection, i.e. for chemosensitization, conditioning, and gene therapy as well as a means to study the interactions between HSCs and their BM microenvironment, is reviewed. Open questions, controversies, and the potential impact of recent technical progress on mobilization research are also highlighted.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2125
StatePublished - 2019


  • BM niche
  • CXCR2
  • CXCR4
  • Chemosensitization
  • Conditioning
  • G-CSF
  • Gene therapy
  • Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells
  • Mobilization
  • VLA4


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